1. WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard. Geneva: World health organization, 2021 (https://covid19.who.int).
2. Stokes EK, Zambrano LD, Anderson KN, et al. Coronavirus Disease Case Surveillance 2019 – United States, January 22 to May 30, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020; 69:759–765.
3. Ko JY, Danielson ML, City M, et al. Risk Factors for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) – Associated Hospitalization: COVID-19 – Associated Hospital Surveillance Network and Behavioral Risk Factor Monitoring System. Clin Infect Dis 2021; 72 (11):e695–e703.
4th Kompaniyets L, Goodman AB, Fuse B, et al. Body Mass Index and Risk of Hospitalization Associated with COVID-19, Intensive Care Unit Admission, Invasive Mechanical Ventilation, and Death – United States, March – December 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021; 70:355–361.
5. Wagner CE, Saad-Roy CM, Morris SE, et al. Vaccination Nationalism and the Dynamics and Control of SARS-CoV-2. science 2021; 373 (6562):eabj7364–eabj7364.
6th Nguyen KH, Nguyen K, Corlin L, Allen JD, Chung M. Changes in COVID-19 Vaccine Reception and Vaccine Intentions by Socio-Economic Characteristics and Geographic Area, United States, January 6 – March 29, 2021. Ann Med 2021; 53:1419–1428.
7th Arribas JR, Bhagani S, Lobo S., et al. Randomized study of molnupiravir or placebo in patients hospitalized with Covid-19. NEJM Evid. DOI: 10.1056 / EVIDoa2100044.
8th. Injured AC, Wheatley AK. Neutralizing antibody therapeutics for COVID-19. Viruses 2021; 13:628–628.
9. Gupta A, Gonzalez-Rojas Y, Juarez E., et al. Early treatment of Covid-19 with the SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody sotrovimab. N Engl J Med 2021; 385:1941–1950.
10. Fischer W, Eron JJ Jr., Holman W., et al. Molnupiravir, an oral antiviral drug for COVID-19. June 17th, 2021 (https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.06.17.21258639v1). Form.
11th Cohen MS, Probably there, Fischer WA, Blacksmith DM, Eron JJ. Outpatient treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection to prevent the progression of COVID-19. Clin Infect Dis 2021; 73:1717–1721.
12th Yoon JJ, Toots M, Lee S, et al. Orally effective broad spectrum ribonucleoside analogue inhibitor of influenza and respiratory syncytial viruses. Antimicrobial agents Chemother 2018; 62 (8):e00766-18.
13th Helmsman RM, Wolf JD, Plemper RK. The therapeutically administered ribonucleoside analog MK-4482 / EIDD-2801 blocks the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in ferrets. Nat. Microbiol 2021; 6:11th–18th.
14th Sheahan TP, Sims AC, Zhou S, et al. An orally bioavailable broad spectrum antiviral agent inhibits SARS-CoV-2 in human respiratory epithelial cell cultures and several coronaviruses in mice. Sci Transl Med 2020; 12 (541):eabb5883–eabb5883.
fifteen. Choice A, Gralinski LE, Johnson CE, et al. SARS-CoV-2 infection is effectively treated and prevented by EIDD-2801. nature 2021; 591:451–457.
16. Abdelnabi R, Foo CS, De Jonghe S, Maes P, Weynand B, Neyts J. Molnupiravir inhibits replication of the emerging SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern (VoCs) in a hamster infection model. J Infectious disease 2021; 224:749–753.
17th Agostini ML, Pruijssers AJ, Chapel JD, et al. Low molecular weight antiviral beta-dN4th-Hydroxycytidine inhibits a proofreading coronavirus with a high genetic resistance barrier. J Virol 2019; 93 (24):e01348–19th.
18th Urakova N, Kuznetsova V, Crossman DK, et al. β-dN4th-Hydroxycytidine is a potent anti-alphavirus compound that induces high levels of mutations in the viral genome. J Virol 2018; 92 (3):e01965–e17.
19th Grobler J, Strizki J., Murgolo N, et al. Molnupiravir maintains antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 variants in vitro and in early clinical studies. In: Proceedings and abstracts of IDWeek 2021, September 29 – October 3, 2021. Arlington, Virginia: Infectious Disease Society in America, 2021.
20th Kabinger F., Stiller C, Schmitzová J, et al. Mechanism of molnupiravir-induced SARS-CoV-2 mutagenesis. Nat Struct Mol Biol 2021; 28:740–746.
21. Gordon CJ, Tchesnokov EP, Schinazi RF, Götte M. Molnupiravir promotes SARS-CoV-2 mutagenesis via the RNA template. J Biol Chem 2021; 297:100770–100770.
22nd Malone B, Campbell EA. Molnupiravir: Coding for Disaster. Nat Struct Mol Biol 2021; 28:706–708.
23 Painter WP, Holman W., Bush YES, et al. The safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of molnupiravir in humans, a novel broad-spectrum oral antiviral agent with activity against SARS-CoV-2. Antimicrobial agents Chemother 2021; 65 (5):e02428-20–e02428-20.
24 Khoo SH, Fitzgerald R, Fletcher T, et al. Optimal dose and safety of molnupiravir in patients with early-stage SARS-CoV-2: an open-label, dose-escalating, randomized, controlled phase I study. J Antimicrobial Chemother 2021; 76:3286–3295.
25th Chawla A, Cao Y, Stone J, et al. Model-based dose selection for the Phase 3 evaluation of molnupiravir (MOV) in the treatment of COVID-19 in adults. In: Proceedings and abstracts of the 31st annual meeting of the European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 9-12 July 2021. Basel, Switzerland: European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 2021.
26th COVID-19: Drug and Biological Product Development for Treatment or Prevention: Guidelines for Industry. Silver Spring, MD: Food and Drug Administration, Can 2020 (https://www.fda.gov/regulatory-information/search-fda-guidance-documents/covid-19-developing-drugs-and-biological-products-treatment-or-prevention).
27 WHO COVID-19 case definitions. Geneva: World health organization, December 16, 2020 (https://apps.who.int/iris/rest/bitstreams/1322790/retrieve).
28. Rent O, Nurminen M. Comparative analysis of two tariffs. Statistics Med 1985; 4:213–226.
29 Hwang IK, Shih WJ, De Cani JS. Group sequential designs using a family of Type I error probability output functions. Statistics Med 1990; 9:1439–1445.
30th Rosenberg ES, Holtgrave DR, Dorabawila V, et al. New COVID-19 Cases and Adult Hospital Admissions by Immunization Status – New York, May 3–25. July 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021; 70:1306–1311.
31. Caraco Y, Crofoot G, Moncada PA, et al. Phase 2/3 study of molnupiravir for the treatment of Covid-19 in non-hospitalized adults. NEJM Evid. DOI: 10.1056 / EVIDoa2100043.
32. Tenforde MW, Kim SS, Lindsell CJ, et al. Duration of Symptoms and Risk Factors for Delayed Return to Normal Health in Outpatients with COVID-19 in a Multi-State Health System Network – United States, March-June 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020; 69:993–998.
33 Tenforde MW, Even WH, Naioti EA, et al. Sustained Efficacy of Pfizer BioNTech and Moderna Vaccines Against COVID-19 Associated Hospital Admissions in Adults – United States, March – July 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021; 70:1156–1162.
34. Bajema KL, Dahl RM, Prill MM, et al. Efficacy of COVID-19 mRNA Vaccines Against COVID-19 Associated Hospitalizations – Five Veteran Medical Centers, United States, February 1 to August 6, 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021; 70:1294–1299.
35. Gottlieb RL, Nirula A, Chen P, et al. Effect of bamlanivimab as monotherapy or in combination with etesevimab on viral load in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2021; 325:632–644.
36. Horby PW, Mafham M, Peto L, et al. Casirivimab and imdevimab in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 (RECOVERY): a randomized, controlled, open platform study. June 16, 2021 (https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.06.15.21258542v1). Form.
37. Pogue JM, Lauring AS, Gandhi TN, et al. Monoclonal antibodies for the early treatment of COVID-19 in a world of evolving SARS-CoV-2 mutations and variants. Open Forum Infect Dis 2021; 8 (7):ofab268–ofab268.
38. Kuhmann K, Guo Y, Pirofski LA, et al. Hospital stays after severe acute coronavirus 2 respiratory syndrome with monoclonal antibodies as a guardian for the appearance of viral variants in New York City. Open Forum Infect Dis 2021; 8 (8):ofab313–ofab313.